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So the matriarch in a typical Woody Allen film might be described as a stereotypical, not archetypal, Jewish mother, architect or designer?The title of architect is protected under UK law and should only be used to describe someone who is registered as such. What is commonly known as the average is the mean: everyone’s wages are added up and divided by the number of wage earners. The Guardian’s view is that actress comes into the same category as authoress, comedienne, manageress, “lady doctor”, “male nurse” and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were largely the preserve of one sex (usually men). If you must use it, the Latin preposition is followed by another Latin word, eg per capita, not per head. Not PyeongChang, the spelling adopted by the South Korean government as a rebranding exercise just for the Games, pygmyplural pygmies, lc except for members of Equatorial African ethnic group, pyrrhicA pyrrhic victory is not a hollow one, as often assumed, but one achieved at great cost. ), The median is often a more useful guide than the mean, which can be distorted by figures at one extreme or the other, awakenSay “I woke up”, “I was woken up” and so on because the forms starting with A are either considered wrong (“I was awoken”) or sound wrong (“I was awakened”). Make your mind up and say either “and” or “or” – whichever is more appropriate. Populism is often mistakenly used as a synonym for far-right politics but populists can appeal to people across the political spectrum so be clear about what kind of populism is being referred to eg leftwing populism, the far-right populist etc, pore or pour?You might pore over the style guide after pouring a cup of coffee, pornographyis preferable, as a term, to “porn”, Portakabin, PortalooTM; say portable building, portable toilets, or you are certain to receive a letter from the Portakabin lawyers pointing out the error of your ways, Portland stonecomes from the Isle of Portland in Dorset; portland cement doesn’t, Port of London authority PLA on second mention. Where two or more peers share the same name, make it clear which one you are writing about, for example:Lola Young, the former actor, artist and academic (first mention), Lady Young of Hornsey (second mention), thereafter Young.Barbara Young, a former chief executive of the Environment Agency and Care Quality Commission (first mention), Lady Young of Old Scone (second mention), thereafter Young. police ranksUse abbreviation at first mention, then just surname, eg DCI Jane Tennison, thereafter Tennison. To avoid ambiguity, say soon when you mean soon, and don’t say anything when you mean now. - BBC's Learning Portal police forcesMetropolitan police (the Met after first mention), West Midlands police, New York police department (NYPD at second mention), etc, but note Royal Military Police and British Transport Police. Remember that our international online readership will not necessarily be aware of even well-known UK abbreviations. Like schizophrenia, it should not be used as a cheap and lazy metaphor. A stereotype is based on simplistic generalisations about a particular group. If an abbreviation or acronym is to be used more than once in a piece, put it in brackets at first mention: so Association of Chief Police Officers (Acpo), seasonal affective disorder (Sad); alternatively, use the abbreviation with a brief description, eg the conservation charity the RSPB. Similarly: Labour warned of financial crash (did someone warn Labour of an impending crash, or did Labour warn someone else? Anyone who thinks of using a phrase such as “positively anorexic” should think again, AnsaphoneTM; use answering machine or answerphone, antenna(insect) plural antennae; (radio) plural antennas, anticipatePurists say this should not be used to mean expect, but expressions like “they did not anticipate any trouble” are now normal usage. Schoolchildren used to be told (by English teachers unduly influenced by Latin) that it was ungrammatical to end sentences with a preposition, a fallacy satirised by Churchill’s “this is the sort of English up with which I will not put” and HW Fowler’s “What did you bring me that book to be read to out of for?”, Take care after phrases following “to”: the subheading “to we Conservatives, Labour looks as if it’s heading back to the old horrors of the winter of discontent” drew numerous protests from readers pointing out that it should have been “to us Conservatives … “ (The mistake was ours, not the shadow cabinet minister who wrote the piece), prescribe, prescriptivedo something; proscribe, proscriptive don’t: prescriptive grammarians love to tell you what to do and to proscribe things they disapprove of. The same applies to the phrase “if and when”, … And You Will Know Us By The Trail Of Dead, Angkor WatAngkor Wat is only one of the 100 or so temples of Angkor, albeit the best known (“wat” means temple), animalspronoun “it” unless gender established, annexverb; annexe noun; I am going to annex the annexe for the afternoon. Apple no longer Apple Computer. In reference to US legislation, six-week abortion ban is preferable to foetal heartbeat bill, unless quoting someone talking about the “heartbeat bill”, abusesee individual entries on child sexual abuse, domestic abuse/family abuse and sexual abuse, Academy Awards or Oscarsindividual awards are lowercase, eg best actor award, Oscar for best picture, After first mention, abbreviate the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to the Academy, a cappellaItalian for “in the style of the church”, ie unaccompanied singing, Acasthe Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service, at first mention; thereafter just Acas, accentsUse on French, German, Portuguese, Spanish and Irish Gaelic words (but not anglicised French words such as cafe, apart from exposé, lamé, résumé, roué). This is the third, expanded and revised, edition of the modern Guardian style guide, used by journalists at the Guardian, the Observer and guardian.co.uk.. In transliteration, “abd” (slave) is lowercase, eg Ahmad abd al-Rahman al-Saqqaf, except when used at the start of a name. So if you use it your meaning will be unclear and, even if you are being ironic, you will sound pretentious, peshmergaKurdish armed fighters (it means “those who face death”), Peterhouse, Cambridgenot “Peterhouse College”, PETNpentaerythritol tetranitrate, a powerful explosive favoured by terrorists because its colourless crystals are hard to detect in a sealed container, the Philippinesinhabited by Filipinos (male) and Filipinas (female); adjective Filipino for both sexes, but Philippine for, say, a Philippine island or the Philippine president, Philipselectronics company; Phillips auctioneers, screwdriver, philistinelc unless you are talking about the Old Testament Philistines, phone hackingno hyphen for the noun, but hyphenated when used adjectivally, eg the PCC responded with its customary vigour to the phone-hacking scandal, photocall, photocopy, photofit, photojournalism, photoshoot, pithe ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, as every schoolgirl knows, picaresque or picturesque?A picaresque novel is one in which the hero is a rogue who has a series of adventures, for example Henry Fielding’s The Adventures of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749) or John Kennedy Toole’s A Confederacy of Dunces (1980). There is a similar problem with momentarily, which means for a moment or briefly in British English, and very soon to American (and some British) speakers. Exceptions: by convention, Allah (al-Lah, literally “the God”) is written as one word and capitalised; and in Saudi royal names, Al Saud is correct (in this case, “al” is actually “aal” and does not mean “the”). al-Maliki, Nouri(not Nuri) became prime minister of Iraq in 2006, al-Qudsforce of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps; not Quds, Qods, al-Sadr, Moqtadacreator of the Mahdi army, or as the magazine Red Pepper described it: “Moqtada al-Sadr’s not-so-barmy army”, al-ShabaabIslamist insurgency group in Somalia; it means “the youth”. It is appropriate when the relationship is essentially reciprocal: fighting between the many peoples of Yugoslavia, treaties between European countries, etc; among belongs to distributive relationships: shared among, etc, amount or number?amount refers to a quantity, number to something that can be counted, eg an enormous amount of energy was exerted by a small number of people, ampersandUse in company names when the company does: Johnson & Johnson, Marks & Spencer, P&O, etc. Do not use the term “full-blown Aids”. If an organisation is mentioned only once, it is not necessary to give its abbreviation or acronym. The Press Association reported: “Hundreds gathered outside Lichfield Cathedral to witness the arrival of a horse-drawn carriage ahead of Stephen’s body ahead of his funeral”, aide-de-campplural aides-de-camp (aide is a noun), aide-memoireplural aide-memoires (aide is a verb). For breaking news and stories using names for which we have no established style, we take the lead given by Reuters wire copy. Aidsacquired immune deficiency syndrome, but normally no need to spell out. For adverbs that do not end in -ly, use hyphens only when there would be a possibility of ambiguity without one, eg an ill-prepared speech. But phrases such as ever forgiving, near fatal, now defunct, once popular, etc do not need hyphens. © 2020 Guardian News & Media Limited or its affiliated companies. For instance, there are two kinds of s, d and t. There are also two glottal sounds. Did they allegedly ask, or were they allegedly asked? If you use it to mean shop somewhere (“I patronise my local Budgens”), you will sound like a twerp, payback, paycheck, payday, payoff, payout, payslip, paywall, pedro giménezwhite grape grown in South America, pedro ximénezwhite grape grown in Spain (and type of sherry). Cap up single letters in such expressions as C-list, F-word, “the word assassin contains four Ss”, etc, abdicaterenounce high officeabnegaterenounce privileges, deny oneselfabrogaterepeal, abolisharrogatetake or claim (something) for oneself without justification, aborigines, aboriginalfor indigenous populations other than in Australia, where the traditional term “Aborigine” is outdated and offensive to many; the preferred term is Indigenous Australians, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Ulster is one of the four provinces of Ireland, comprising nine counties – six in Northern Ireland, and three in the Republic of Ireland (Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan), psychopathic/psychoticA psychopath is a person with a personality disorder characterised by a tendency to commit antisocial and sometimes violent acts, and an inability to feel guilty about them; a person with psychosis has a mental disorder in which their contact with reality is highly distorted, public-private partnershipPPP on second mention, Public Record Officemerged with the Historical Manuscripts Commission in 2003 to form the National Archives, public schoolsare actually private schools, so that is what we should call them, Punjabifor the language, rather than Panjabi, purchaseas a noun, perhaps, but the verb is buy, purleras in “an absolute purler” (not pearler), purposelyon purpose; purposefully with determination, Pyeongchangvenue for the 2018 Winter Olympics. ahead ofoverused, and often jars (“Why else would they hurriedly concoct their own ‘Confucius peace prize’, a day ahead of the ceremony in Oslo?” appeared in a leading article); before (which should have been used in this case) or in advance of are among the alternatives. Or you could just say “bookings”. Some examples: Andrew Adonis (first mention), Lord Adonis (second mention), Adonis (thereafter).Paddy Ashdown, Lord Ashdown, Ashdown.Sebastian Coe, Lord Coe, Coe.Norman Foster, Lord Foster, Foster.Tony Hall, Lord Hall, Hall.Greville Janner, Lord Janner, Janner.Jenny Jones, Lady Jones, Jones.Martha Lane Fox, Lady Lane-Fox (note hyphen), Lane Fox.Andrew Lloyd Webber, Lord Lloyd-Webber (note hyphen), Lloyd Webber.Peter Mandelson, Lord Mandelson, Mandelson.David Owen, Lord Owen, Owen.John Prescott, Lord Prescott, Prescott.John Reid, Lord Reid, Reid.Richard Rogers, Lord Rogers, Rogers.Chris Smith, Lord Smith, Smith.Sayeeda Warsi, Lady Warsi, Warsi. Bermuda also has a premier rather than a prime minister, Premier League(no longer FA Premier League or Premiership) in England; its equivalent in Scotland is the Scottish Premiership. Even if you claim to be on good terms with the peer in question, avoid such constructions as “Lady Helena Kennedy” or “Baroness Shirley Williams”: call them Helena Kennedy QC at first mention, then Lady Kennedy, then Kennedy; Shirley Williams, then Lady Williams, then Williams. As anyone with a mobile, a laptop and a bit of cheek can be a journalist, or at least claim to be one, journalism is not a profession but a trade, craft or racket. In Northern Ireland: Social Democratic and Labour party (abbreviation: SDLP), Sinn Féin (SF), Alliance party, Democratic Unionist party (DUP), Ulster Unionist party (UUP). This is a collab I did with a friend over the course of a couple of weeks who gave me the concept art. Language can offend.” Quite. The former Washington Post editor Ben Bradlee urged reporters not to “hide their biases and emotions behind subtly pejorative words” such as admit, adoptionMention that children are adopted only when relevant to the story: a reader points out that “explicitly calling attention to adoptions in this way suggests that adoption is not as good, and not as real a relationship, as having a child normally”. Thus: “Arsène Wenger was on holiday in Bogotá with Rafa Benítez”, Accentureformerly Andersen Consulting; the new name was devised by an employee from “accent on the future”, accesshas been known as contact since the 1989 Children Act. armed forces ranksUse as abbreviated below on first mention, then just surname, eg Col Tommy Smith, thereafter Smith. Note, however, the difference between “she got the answers all right” and “she got the answers, alright!”, all togetheras one united body: “We are all in it together”, altogether completely, totally: “That’s an altogether different matter”. You can also refer to The Guardian style guide for advice on hyphenation. Political parties are normally singular, eg Labour is promising to raise taxes, the Conservative party is not very compassionate; but the Conservatives are the nasty party, the Liberal Democrats lost most of their seats, etc, pomp or prime?We should say that someone is “in his prime” rather than the football commentator’s cliche “in his pomp”, pondnot a terribly witty way to refer to the Atlantic (“on the other side of the pond”) which, in the words of one Guardian writer, is “smug, hackneyed, old-fashioned, inaccurate and generally crap”, poowhat George W Bush’s dog did on the White House lawn, but you might pooh-pooh someone’s ideas, pope, theand papacy, pontiff; not always necessary to give his name in full, popularliked; populist wants to be liked: a party’s policies may be populist, but its politicians may remain unpopular, populismBroadly speaking, this refers to political actions or strategies that claim to promote the interests and views of ordinary people, often in opposition to the perceived elite. - £ and p not pounds and pence - £1 not £1.00 - 99p not £0.99 - £2.5 million not £2,500,000 or £2.5m - Commas in thousands: £1,000 - 1 billion is defined as one thousand million . 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